Biot saturation

There are many ways to measure conductivity but one that is exceptionally good for a Senior Physics EEI is to use a modified Ångström method. The Swedish physicist Anders Ångström developed this method in 1863. It involves the periodic heating and cooling of a metal rod and measuring the temperatures with sensors along the rod in two positions a known distance apart. You will see the first wave of heat come past the first sensor and a minute or so later it will arrive at the next sensor. A plot of the data is quite revealing.

Oil compressibility, Coil: * 10^-10 depth 2000 ft 610 m
     ____________________ * 10^-10 _____ 4000 _ 1220
___     ________________ * 10^-10 ____ 8000 _ 2440
_____    _______________ * 10^-10 ____ 12000 3660

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